Note on the back of RKD photo says that this painting is after a drawing by Hendrick Vroom. It does seem very odd that the ships here are flying the flag of the Dutch provinces (which had been toward the beginning of the revolt). The format is related to a Frans Huys engraving after Pieter the Elder from 1595, although the ship is different.
I think that this might be the "Marina con alcune navi di mano di Bruculo" that was in the collection of Cardinal del Monte, one of Brueghel's key Roman patrons. Although its date is after Jan's return to Antwerp, I believe that he continued supplying his Italian patrons with works from there -- we know this is true for Borommeo, of course. This work's provenance goes back to the Barberini family and they acquired many items from Del Monte's collection in the 17th century.