Influence of Cornelis van Dalem on Jan Brueghel
Jan Brueghel were living from 1578 in Antwerp, the city in which Cornelis van Dalem was active just few years ago. He could very probably seen the drawing with St. Antonius, living in a cave (Frankfurt, Städel Museum) in a collection in Antwerp. The impact of Cornelis van Dalems invention was quite considerable, also on other artists.
Jan Brueghel could also have seen the two pictures, pendants, painted by Bartholomeus Spranger 1569 in Rome, when he was in service of Cardinal Farnese (both now in Karlsruhe, Kusthalle; Oberhuber, Konrad, Die Landschaft im Frühwerk Bartholomäus Sprangers, in: Jahrbuch der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen in Baden-Württemberg I, 1964, pp. 173-176, fig. 142, 143). In the same year he painted also the landscape frescoes in the Palazzo Farnese at Caprarola (Bert W. Meijer, Bartholomeus Spranger and Michiel de Joncqoquoy in Sant’Oreste, in: Oud Holland, 124/2011, p. 46, note 12). Bartholomeus Spranger studied with Cornelis van Dalem in 1560-1564 (Van Mander, 1604, Levens Ned., fol. 268v-269r). In one of the mentioned paintings from 1569, he copied the cave with the wooden construction of Cornelis van Dalem (Karlsruhe, Kunsthalle, inv. no. 2449). Obviously he made in Antwerp a copy of the original drawing, which was part of his stock, when leaving for Italy.
It seems more plausible, that Jan Brueghel saw the Spranger picture and perhaps the copy after the drawing of Cornelis van Dalem in Rome, given the fact, that Jan Brueghel created the Landscape with Cistern in 1595 for the Cardinal Federico Borromeo.
The hermit on the Landscape with Cistern (Milan) Jan Brueghel took over from a print by Albrecht Dürer, St. Anthony in front of a City, from 1519 (Meder 51, Panofsky 165).
The hermit reappears in Ertz 1979 #21, Landscape with Hermit on Right. That is, however, a work that Honig considers a doubtful attribution. Copy in Prague, National Gallery, Inv. $DO 5082 (copper, 26 x 35.3).
Ertz notes that various motifs here, like table and chairs, are derived from a drawing by Cornelis van Dalem in the Staedel, Frankfurt, Inv. #763. Question is how Jan could have known that.